Modern product development involves research, testing, positioning, differentiation and several other facets. This, of course, was not always the case. Product options used to consist of an area’s available goods, which were usually limited to the crops from a neighbor’s farm or the goods of a local craftsman or peddler. Brands and developed products did not appear in print advertisements until the late nineteenth century. The process of manufacturing, namely assembly-line techniques and interchangeable parts, made it possible to mass-produce uniform products. Advancements in communication (the telephone) and transportation (airplanes, rail networks) allowed products to be shipped to the doorstep of remote customers. Goods such as cigarettes, canned food and soap got brand names. Customers could buy brand-name products at famous stores such as Sears, Macy’s or Marshall Fields, or from mail-order catalogs as transportation became less costly during the early twentieth century. Consequently, competition between brands became fierce. To lure new customers, each brand used advertising to proclaim how it was different and should be preferred to similar products or services.