Prior to inventions such as electricity, telephones and the Internet, nearly all sales activities took place in the ‘field.’ Salesmen who operated away from a physical place of business have existed for centuries. Most of those early salesmen, however, were also producers of the goods they sold. Peddlers, for example, carried their wares around with them and sold to any willing customer they encountered. Modern sales management did not begin to become sophisticated until the late eighteenth century. The rapid expansion of the United States, along with the simultaneous growth of transportation networks, encouraged the development of Field Sales Groups. In the late nineteenth century, John H. Patterson of National Cash Register promoted the idea of “scientific” salesmanship (similar to the scientific management ideas of Frederick Winslow Taylor). By the early twentieth century, sales, as many business activities, became a focus of study to optimize techniques and procedures. Since the 1920s salesmen have been at the center of the US economy and, arguably, are the representatives of American capitalism.